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PHILOSOPHY AND PHILOSOPHERS




   • a priori
   • absolute
   • absolute space and time
   • acosmism
   • Adams, John (1735–1826)
   • Addison, Joseph (1672–1719)
   • Albertus Magnus (1193–1280)
   • Alembert, Jean Le Rond d' (1717–1783)
   • analogy, argument from
   • Anaxagoras of Clazomenae (c.500–c.428 BC)
   • Anaximander of Miletus (c.610–c.540 BC)
   • Anaximenes of Miletus (c.585–525 BC)
   • ancient philosophy, related to the possibility of extraterrestrial life
   • animism
   • Aquinas, Thomas (1225–1274)
   • Aristotle of Stagira (384–322 BC)
   • associationism
   • Averroës (1126–1198)
   • axiom
   • axiomatic method

   • Bacon, Francis (1561–1626)
   • Bacon, Roger (c.1214–c.1292)
   • Baker, Thomas (1656–1740)
   • Balzac, Honoré de (1799–1850)
   • Barnes, Ernest William (1874–1953)
   • Beattie, James (1735–1803)
   • Beck, Lewis White (1913–1997)
   • Bentley, Richard (1662–1727)
   • Bergson, Henri (1859–1941)
   • Berkeley, George (1685–1753)
   • Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Jacques Henri (1737–1814)
   • Bohm, David Joseph (1917–1992)
   • Bolingbroke, Henry St. John (1678–1751)
   • Bonnet, Charles (1720–1793)
   • Borel, Pierre (c.1620–1671)
   • Borges, Jorge Luis (1899–1986)
   • Boscovich, Roger Joseph (1711–1787)
   • Brewster, David (1781–1868)
   • Bridgman, Percy Williams (1882–1961)
   • Büchner, Ludwig (1824–1899)
   • Buridan, Jean (c.1295–1358)

   • Cambridge Platonists
   • Campanella, Tommaso (1568–1634)
   • Carnap, Rudolf (1891–1970)
   • category
   • causality
   • chain of being, great
   • Chalmers, Thomas (1780–1847)
   • Christian doctrines and pluralism
   • collective unconscious
   • common sense school
   • Comte, Auguste (1798–1857)
   • conceptualism
   • Condillac, Étienne Bonnot de (1715–1780)
   • Confucius (c.551–479 BC)
   • Coyne, George V. (1933–)

   • de Concilio, Januarius (1836–1898)
   • deism
   • Democritus of Abdera (c.470–400 BC)
   • Derham, William (1657–1735)
   • Descartes, René (1596–1650)
   • Design Argument
   • determinism
   • Dewey, John (1859–1952)
   • Dick, Thomas (1774–1857)
   • Diderot, Denis (1713–1784)
   • dualism
   • du Prel, Carl Freiherr (1839–1899)

   • Empedocles (c. 490–430 BC)
   • empiricism
   • Enlightenment, The
   • Epicurus (341–270 BC)
   • epistemology
   • essence

   • Fontanelle, Bernard le Bovier de (1657–1757)
   • free will
   • Frege, Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob (1848–1925)

   • Gassendi, Pierre (1592–1655)
   • Gettier problem
   • God
   • Great Monad
   • Green, Thomas Hill (1836–1882)

   • Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770–1831)
   • Heraclitus (c.540–c.480 BC)
   • Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679)
   • Holbach, Paul Henri Dietrich (1723–1789)
   • holism
   • Hutton, Richard Holt (1826–1897)
   • Hume, David (1711–1776)

   • idealism
   • incarnation and redemption
   • infinity
   • instrumentalism

   • James, William (1842–1910)
   • Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)

   • Kant, Immanuel (1724–1804)

   • Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm von (1646–1716)
   • Leucippus (5th century BC)
   • Locke, John (1632–1704)
   • logic
   • logical positivism
   • Lucretius (c. 99–55 BC)

   • Mach, Ernst (1838–1916)
   • Malebranche, Nicolas (1638–1715)
   • Mascall, Eric Lionel (1905–1993)
   • materialism
   • Mead, George Herbert (1863–1931)
   • medieval philosophy, related to the possibility of extraterrestrial life
   • metaphysics
   • Mettrie, Julien Offray de la (1709–1751)
   • Metrodorus of Chios (fourth century BC)
   • microscope argument
   • Mill, John Stuart (1806–1873)
   • mind
   • monad
   • monism
   • Mormonism

   • natural theology
   • Nicholas of Cusa (1401–1464)
   • nominalism
   • nothing

   • Ockham (Occam), William of (c.1280–1347)

   • Paine, Thomas (1737–1809)
   • pantheism
   • Parmenides (fl. c.475 BC)
   • Payley, William (1743–1805)
   • Peirce, Charles Sanders (1839–1914)
   • perception
   • peripatetic school
   • phenomenology
   • philosophy
   • Platonism
   • Plato (428–348 BC)
   • plenitude, principle of
   • pluralism
   • Plutarch (c.AD 46–120)
   • Popper, Karl Raimund (1902–1994)
   • positivism
   • pragmatism
   • pre-Socratic philosophy
   • process philosophy
   • Proclus Diadochus (c.AD 410–485)

   • Quine, Willard Van Orman (1908–2000)

   • rationalism
   • realism
   • reductionism
   • Reid, Thomas (1710–1796)
   • Reynaud, Jean (1806–1863)
   • Russell, Bertrand Arthur William (1872–1970)
   • Ryle, Gilbert (1900–1976)

   • scientific method
   • sensationalism
   • skepticism
   • Socrates (c.469–399 BC)
   • solipsism
   • Spencer, Herbert (1820–1903)
   • Spinoza, Baruch (1632–1677)
   • Stewart, Dugald (1753–1828)
   • Swedenborg, Emanuel (1688–1772)

   • Tabula rasa
   • Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre (1881–1955)
   • teleology
   • Teng Mu
   • Theophrastus (c.370–c.285 BC)
   • transmigration of souls
   • truth

   • universal
   • Ussher, James (1581–1656)

   • vitalism
   • Vorilong, William (d. 1463)

   • Whewell, William (1794–1866)
   • Whitehead, Alfred North (1861–1947)
   • Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1889–1951)

   • Xenophanes (c.570–475 BC)

   • yin and yang

   • Zeno of Elea (c.450 BC)